Nationalities

Assigning a nationality to an artist can be a difficult process. The nationalities which appear in IPCR are taken from the ULAN (Union List of Artist Names), which is part of the Getty Institute’s Vocabulary Program. The ULAN was selected in an effort to standardize the terms used to describe national origin.

A list of all of the nationalities used in IPCR appears below, arranged alphabetically. Artists are identified primarily (but not always) by their nation of birth. Note that often dual nationalities are given, as in the case of "Brazilian, in France." This indicates that the artist in question was of Brazilian origin, but resided primarily in France. Also, when an artist was known to have worked in a particular country, but his/her place of birth is unknown, the more general term "fl." is used in combination with the known place of work, as in "fl. Germany."

When the nationality of an artist is yet to be determined, none will display.


  • Algerian, in France
  • Alsatian
  • American
  • American, in Britain
  • American, in Canada
  • American, in France
  • Argentine
  • Australian
  • Austrian
  • Austrian, in Denmark
  • fl. Austria
  • Belgian
  • Belgian, in France
  • Belgian, in U.S.
  • Bohemian
  • Brazilian
  • Brazilian, in Britain
  • Brazilian, in France
  • British
  • British, in Australia
  • British, in Canada
  • British, in Ireland
  • British, in Netherlands
  • British, in Scotland
  • British, in U.S.
  • Canadian
  • Canadian, in U.S.
  • Chilean
  • Chinese, in France
  • Chinese, in U.S.
  • Colombian
  • Costa Rican, in Mexico
  • Croatian, in Italy
  • Cuban
  • Cuban, in U.S.
  • Czechoslovakian
  • Czech, in Austria
  • Czech, in Switzerland
  • Danish
  • Dutch (see also Netherlandish)
  • Dutch, in England
  • Dutch, in France
  • Dutch, in Germany
  • Dutch, in Italy
  • Dutch, in New Zealand
  • Dutch, in Poland
  • Dutch, in U.S
  • Dutch/Flemish (used for names in [Holl. Neth.] and [Holl. New Neth.] that are without a clear nationality)
  • fl. England
  • Estonian
  • Finnish
  • Flemish
  • Flemish, in Austria
  • Flemish, in England
  • Flemish, in France
  • Flemish, in Germany
  • Flemish, in Italy
  • French
  • French, in Austria
  • French, in Chile
  • French, in England
  • French, in Germany
  • French, in Italy
  • French, in Netherlands
  • French, in Russia
  • French, in U.S.
  • fl. France
  • German
  • German, in England
  • German, in France
  • German, in Italy
  • German, in Netherlands
  • German, in U.S.
  • fl. Germany
  • Greek
  • Hungarian, in France
  • Hungarian, in Germany
  • Icelandic
  • Indian
  • Irish
  • Irish, in U.S.
  • Israeli
  • Italian
  • Italian, in France
  • Italian, in Germany
  • Italian, in Spain
  • Italian, in U.S.
  • fl. Italian
  • Japanese
  • Japanese, in Europe
  • Japanese, in France
  • Japanese, in Germany
  • Korean, in France
  • Korean, in U.S.
  • Latvian
  • Lithuanian
  • Lithuanian, in U.S.
  • Mexican
  • Moravian
  • Netherlandish
  • early Netherlandish
  • Norwegian
  • Norwegian, in Germany
  • Polish
  • Polish, in Netherlands
  • Portuguese
  • Puerto Rican
  • Romanian
  • Russian
  • Russian, France
  • Russian, in U.S.
  • South African
  • Scottish
  • Scottish, in U.S.
  • Spanish
  • Spanish, in France
  • Spanish, in Mexico
  • Spanish, in Scotland
  • Spanish, in U.S.
  • Swedish
  • Swedish, in England
  • Swedish, in U.S.
  • Swiss
  • Swiss, in France
  • Swiss, in Germany
  • Swiss, in Italy
  • Swiss, in U.S.
  • Ukrainian
  • Venezuelan
  • Yugoslavian
  • Yugoslavian, in Italy